Political Crises around the world has tremendously changed the ruling power. Rapid leadership transition has taken place by impeachment and military coups.
Let’s look at some of the recent Political Crises.
Catalonia has been part of Spain since the 15th century, and even though in the early 20th century it gained autonomy, it was repressed under the dictatorial regime of Francisco Franco. At present, Catalonia is the richest part of Spain.
Though it’s fighting for Independence dates back to early 20th century, the financial crisis in 2008 ignited the moment at a greater pace. At this momentum, local leaders have sensed that Catalonia was paying more in taxes than the benefits it was getting in return. In 2014, Catalonia had gained a popular vote in support of its independence.
However, on 1st October, Catalonia staged an independence referendum for the first time, which Spain declared unconstitutional and arrested the separatist leaders. After the failure to conduct a referendum in October a fresh referendum was conducted on 21st December and finally the separatists won the referendum by securing 70 seats out of 135, which brought the deposed Catalan president Carles Puigdemont to power. This referendum is considered as the second setback after Brexit for EU economy.
The military coup is not a rare phenomenon in African countries, but the one that happened in Zimbabwe was a peaceful one. The main reason behind the coup was to bring down the 37 years of Robert Mugabe’s rule. Though he was seen as a hero for a long time, who brought independence from the Britishers in 1980, this fame didn’t last long because of his activities. He allowed the persecution of white farmers leaving hundreds murdered. As time passed by, his regime was filled with corruption and soon the country was stuck in hyper-inflation which caused the country’s currency to sink. This increased poverty and life expectancy dropped. Nearly 50 percent of the country’s population sank into unemployment, political opponents were persecuted and murdered. Finally, in 2017 he fired the vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa, who led the country’s liberation army amidst rumors that he wanted to elevate his wife into the position of the leader. His unpopular policies and corruption eventually led to a military intervention and a peaceful transition of power was made from Mugabe to Emmerson Mnangagwa.
It has been almost three months after the completion of German federal elections, but they still don’t have a ruling government in the country. Angela Merkel, leader of the Christian Democrats (CDU) who has been the Chancellor for the past three consecutive terms suffered losses at the polls in 2017. Refugee policy was seen as the primary reason behind this loss.
Soon after the elections, Merkel’s CDU first attempted to form a coalition with the Greens and the Free Democrats. However, that didn’t yield well and fell apart. Now finally CDU has only one option left that is the Social Democratic Party (SPD), who has been its partner in the grand coalition in the last two consecutive terms (2005-2009 and 2013-2017). These exploratory talks are going to begin from 7th January 2018. If the talks with SPD fails, Germany might have to face another election. According to the experts’ prediction, re-elections might not be a favorable act for Merkel’s CDU.
On 4th November, Lebanon’s prime minister, Saad Hariri resigned from his post in a mysterious televised address from Saudi Arabia by accusing its rival Iran and its Lebanese ally Hezbollah of destabilizing Lebanon. He stated that he was stepping down due to the rising Iranian influence in the country.
This shocking telecast escalated fears in the country as President Michel Aoun accused Saudi authorities of holding the PM as a hostage and forced him to resign. Hariri left Riyadh and went to Cairo and Paris where he held talks with his counterparts. From there he returned to Lebanon on the eve of his country’s 74th independence day celebration. On returning to Lebanon, he agreed to withdraw his resignation only if all parties in Lebanon’s government agreed to adhere to the state’s policy of dissociation from regional conflicts. And finally, on 4th December, this ended when Hariri revoked his resignation by saying that all members of the government had agreed to stay out of the conflicts in Arab countries.
From the past two decades, Brazilian Politics has acted as a hotbed for corrupt politics along with serious inflation. President Dilma Rousseff who was impeached last year has played a key role in this bitter chaos. The country saw the greatest scandal in its history called Lava Jato (Car Wash) where every senior politician from almost every party including former president DA Silva, former house speaker Eduardo Cunha and the head of the Senate, Renan Calheiros was involved in this scandal. In addition to this, many leading businessmen have been jailed. Though Rousseff was proven clean in corruption cases, she has been accused of allowing creative accounting techniques which have further created economic instability. Whatever the accusations be, the real reason for her impeachment is the multiple crises the country has been facing.
Romania which is the second poorest country in the European Union saw a sudden change in its leadership in the month of June. The Social Democrat Party (PSD) which has come to power barely six months ago removed it’s former Prime Minister Sorin Grindeanu with a no-confidence motion. The main accusation laid over Grindeanu was his “delay” in implementing reforms. Soon after his removal Mihai Tudose the outgoing economy minister was appointed as the Prime Minister as Members of Parliament cast their vote.