The Naga rebellion in Assam and Manipur resulted in the enacting of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act way back in 1958, eventually being implemented in the other Northeastern states. Since then, there have been casualties on all sides. The militants have targeted officials and army, and the army is trying to contain the insurgency. However, while the two sides battle it out, it is often the civilians that get caught in the crossfire.
Activists in Manipur have been protesting to lift the AFSPA for decades. Most famously, Irom Sharmila went on a hunger strike for 14 years in an attempt to get the Government to withdraw the law from Manipur.
In 2015, the law was withdrawn from the North East state of Tripura, with the state government claiming that the violence in the state had been contained. Then in 2017, the Supreme Court ruled that cases of extrajudicial killings would be probed and guilty soldiers punished to the full extent of the law. These decisions have brought the hope of peace to the neighboring states as well.
Read about the pros and cons of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act here.